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Monday, 20 October 2014

DISTINGUISHING PHRASAL VERB (With example)

DISTINGUISHING PHRASAL VERB
It has been seen that the position of pronoun objects, adverbs of manner and stress in spoken English varies according to whether a verb is followed by a preposition or by and adverb.
These differences are summarized in the following table. The verbs to sit and to turn are used as examples. The verb to sit is followed byon used as a preposition, whereas the verb to turn is followed by onused as an adverb.
Verb + Preposition
Verb + adverb
Object pronoun is placed after the preposition.
Ex: I sat on it.
Adverb of manner may be placed between verb and preposition.
Ex: I sat quietly on it.
Object pronoun is placed before the adverb.
Ex: I turned it on.
Adverb of manner may not be placed between verb and adverb.
Ex: I quietly turned it on.
Verb is stressed:
This is what I sat on.
Adverb is stressed:
This is what I sat on.
Because of the summarized above, it is important to be able to distinguish between a verb followed by a preposition, and a verb followed by an adverb.
1) Adverb phrases of location compared with phrasal verbs followed by objects
In many cases, it is necessary to distinguish between an ordinary verb followed by an adverb phrase of location, and a phrasal verb followed by an object.
Example:
- I turned up the street.
- I turned up the volume.
NOTE:
ç In the first example, the verb turned is followed by the adverb phrase of location up the street. In the second example, the phrasal verb turned up is followed by the object volume. In this example, the phrasal verb turned up has the meaning increased.
ç In the first example, street is the object of the preposition up. If the object is changed to a pronoun, the pronoun must follow the preposition.
Example:
- I turned up the street.
- I turned up it.
ç In the second example, volume is the object of the phrasal verbturned up. If the object is changed to a pronoun, the pronoun must precede the adverb up.
Example:
- I turned up the volume.
- I turned it up.
ç In the first example, if the verb is modified by an adverb of manner, the adverb of manner may precede the adverb phrase of location.
Example:
- I turned up the street.
- I turned quickly up the street.
ç In the second example, if the verb is modified by an adverb of manner, the adverb of manner may not be placed between the two parts of the phrasal verb.
Example:
- I turned up the volume.
- I quickly turned up the volume.
2) Words used as prepositions or adverbs
It is also necessary to be able to distinguish between a phrasal verb consisting of a verb followed by a preposition, and a phrasal verb consisting of a transitive verb followed by an adverb. In many cases, it is possible to make the distinction by means of the preposition or adverb following the verb.
ç The following words are used in phrasal verbs as preposition, but are not usually used in phrasal verbs as adverbs following transitive verbs.
After, at, by, from, of, toward, without, against, before, for, into, to, with…
ç In contrast, the following words are used in phrasal verbs asadverbs following transitive verbs, but are not usually used in phrasal verbs as prepositions.
Along, away, behind, forward, together, aside, back, down, out, up…
ç The following words present more difficulty, since they can be used in phrasal verbs both as prepositions and adverbs following transitive verbs.
Across, in, on, upon, through, around, round, off, over…
NOTE: Thus, it is advisable to study which phrasal verbs use these words as prepositions, and which phrasal verbs use these words as adverbs. The following tables give examples of phrasal verbs containing each of these words. The left-hand column gives phrasal verbs consisting of verbs followed by prepositions, while the right-hand column gives phrasal verbs consisting of transitive verbs followed by adverbs.
Words used as prepositions or adverbs

Verb + Preposition
Transitive Verb + Adverb
Come across
Cut across
Run across
Stumble across
Get across ( an idea)
Put across (an idea)
Hang around
Lounge around
Mill around
Pass around
Rally round
Show around
Bring round
Confide in
Deal in
Join in
Break in
Breathe in
Call in
Fill in
Hand in
Phase in
Rope in
Take in
Trade in
Glance off
Deep off
Warn off
Call off
Fend off
Give off
Lay off
Pair off
Pension off
Polish off
Pull off
Put off
Reel off
Sell off
Shrug off
Turn off
Write off
Bank on
Border on
Build on
Call on
Come upon
Count on
Dawn on
Decide on
Dwell on
Enlarge on
Expand on
Frown on
Grow on
Hinge on
Live on
Pick on
Prey on
Reckon on
Survive on
Thrust upon
Touch on
Verge on
Cheer on
Hand on
Try on
Turn on
Get over
Go over
Run over
Watch over
Take over
Talk over
Think over
Paper over
Smooth over
Break through
get through
go through
leaf through
look through
sail through
scrape through
see through
sit through
wade through
Pull through

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