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Monday, 27 October 2014

Sentence Narration Changing Rules

Rule of sentence narration
Direct and Indirect Narration 
Objectives: By the end of the lesson you will have
1. learnt the difference between direct & indirect speeches.
2. learnt the rules of narration according to tenses.
3.learnt to change the direct speech of statement or assertive sentence into indirect speech.
Read the following sentences :
A. The boy says, "I read in B. High School".
B. The boy says that he reads in B. High School.
In the sentence A the speech of the boy is quoted in the exact words of the speaker.
The speech quoted in the exact words of the speaker is a Direct Speech or
Direct Narration. It is always written within inverted commas.
Note: The direct speech -contains :
a. Reporting speech : The boy says, _
b. Reporting verb : says
c. Reported speech 1 "I read in B. High School."
d. Verb of the reported speech : read
In the sentence B the speech is reported in a narrative form without quoting the
exact words of the speaker.
The speech reported in narrative form without quoting the exact words of
the speaker is an Indirect Speech or Indirect Narration.
Note : The reporting speech and the reported speech are joined by a linking
word and the commas are omitted. -Remember: Narration is of two kinds. They are:
(a) Direct Narration or Direct speech
(h) Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech
General Rules
[i]
Assertive Sentence or Statement
1.If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, the tense in the
reported speech is not changed.
Direct : Nabil says, "I am fine."
Indirect : Nabil says that he is fine.
Direct : The man says, "I shall do it."
Indirect : The man says that he will do it.
Direct : He says, "I went there yesterday."
Indirect I : He says that he went there yesterday.
Direct : He will say, "I am ready to go."
Indirect : He says that he is ready to go.
2. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the verb in the reported
speech is changed into the corresponding past form.
Nadin said, "I am fine.'
Nadin said that he was fine.
He said, "I want to go."
He said that he wanted to go.
He said, "I am reading a book."
He said that he was reading a book.
He said, "I have learnt my1esson."
He said that he had learnt his lesson.
He said, "I have been learning English.”
He said that he had been teaming English. .
He said, "I had reached the school before the bell rang"
He said that he had reached the school before the bell rang.
He said, "I can do the work.
He said that he could do the work.
He said, ."I shall do it." .
He said that he would do it.
He said, "I shall have done it."
He said‘ that he would have done it.
3. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb of the reported
speech is in the past indefinite tense, it (the verb in the reported
speech) is changed into the past perfect tense.
Direct : Urmi said, “I went to school.
Indirect : Urmi said that she had gone to school.
Direct : He said, "I wrote the book."
Indirect ' : He said that he had written the book.
Direct : ‘Kabir said to me, "I was sick."
Indirect : Kabir told me (said to me) that he had been sick.
4.If the reporting verb is in the past tense, and the verb in the reported
speech is in the past continuous, it (the verb in the reported speech) is
' changed into the past perfect continuous tense.
Direct :_ He said, "I was reading a book."
Indirect : He said that he had been reading a book.
Direct : Shimu said to me, "I was making a research to. solve the
problem."
Indirect : Shimu told me (said to-me) that she had been making a research to
solve the problem.
-Note: The use of the conjunction that between the reporting speech and the
reported speech is not a must in the indirect speech.
5. If the Direct Speech describes a universal truth, constant fact, habitual
fact, geographical fact and quotations, the verb in the reported speech
remains unchanged:
Direct : The teacher said, "The earth moves round the sun."
Indirect : The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
Direct : He said, "My father reads the Holy Quran every morning."
Indirect : He said that his father reads the Holy Quran every morning.
Direct : Keats said, "A thing of beauty is a joy for ever."
Indirect :Keats I said that a thing of beauty is a joy for ever.
6.The First Person of the direct speech is changed into the person the man spoken to and the third person does not have any change: '
Direct : Rahman said to Mamun, "Your father will go to my office"
Indirect : Rahman told Mamun that his father would go to his office.
Direct : Salam says to you, "You did not help me."
Indirect : Salarn tells you that you did not help him.
Direct : They said to us, "He will meet you."
Indirect : They told us that he would meet us.
Note: If the Reporting Verb has an object, it is not good English to write, said
to him before that, It is better to write told us/him etc.
7. If the Reported speech has two or more verbs occurring at the same
time, the past tense of the verbs is not changed :
Direct : The teacher said, "Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept."
The teacher said that Mr. Ant worked hard while Mr. Grasshopper slept
Indirect : He said, "The children sang, danced and played."
Direct : He said that the children sang, danced and played.
8.Words that express nearness are often changed into the words
expressing remoteness:
Words in direct speech Words in indirect speech
Here there
This that
Ago before
These those
Hence thence
Come go
Hither thither
Thus so, in that way
Today that day, the same day
Tomorrow he next day, the following day
Yesterday the previous day, the day before
Last night the previous night, the night before
Exercise :-
Change the following sentences into indirect speech :
1. The boy says, "My father is working abroad." 2. Karim says, "I was right".
3. He said to me, “I shall help you“. 4. Anwar said to them, "You were absent
from the class yesterday". 5. The man said to Kalam, "You have not sent me
the letter". 6. Ahmed said to his father, "I am preparing my lesson". 7. He said
to me, “I did not see the boy going“. 8. They said to me, "You have done well".
9. The man said to the children, "Allah is kind". 10. They said, "We came,
worked and returned".
Ans:
1.The boy says that his father is working abroad . 2. Karim says that he was right.
3. He said to me that he would help me. 4. Anwar said to them that they had been absent
from the class the previous day. 5. The man said to Kalam that he had not sent him
the letter. 6. Ahmed said to his father that he was preparing his lesson. 7. He said
to me that he had not seen that boy going“. 8. They said to me that I had done well.
9. The man said to the children that Allah is kind. 10. They said that they had come,
worked and returned.

[ii]
Interrogative Sentence:
Structure of indirect speech
(a) Reporting verb is changed into ask or enquire of.
(b) If or whether is used as a linking word.
(c) The auxiliary verb in the reported speech is used after the subject.
(d) If the sentence begins with who, which, what, how, when, where,
why etc., these are not changed and if or whether is not used.
Note : The indirect speech becomes a statement and no question mark is used.
Nadim said to Nadia, "Are you reading now?"
Nadim asked Nadia (or enquired of) if she was reading then.
The man said to Shaila, "What is your name?"
The man asked Shaila what her name was.
[iii]
Imperative Sentence
Structure of indirect speech
a. Reporting verb is changed into tell, command or order, request - or
beg or entreat or ask, forbid, according to the sense of the speech
b. Reporting verb and Reported speech are joined by Infinitive ‘to
He said to me, "Do it now"?
He told me to do it then.
The captain said, "Soldiers, march on".
The captain commanded the soldiers to march on.
[iv]
Optative Sentence
The structure of indirect speech of Optative sentences.
a. The Reporting verb is changed into wish or pray.
b. The Optative form is changed into a statement.
c. ‘That’ is used as a linking word.
He said to me, "May you be happy".
He wished that I might be happy.
Mr. Khan said, "May Allah save me".
Mr. Khan prayed that Allah might save him.
[v]
Exclamatory Sentence:
a. The reporting verb is changed into exclaim, cry, shout etc. according
to the sense.
b. New words and phrases like. with joy/in joy, with sorrow/ in sorrow,
in wonder etc. are used to express the meaning of exclamation. If the
sense of exclamation is not clear, such phrases are not used.
c. That is used as a linking word.
d. The changed form becomes a statement.
Direct : The man said, "Alas! I am undone".
Indirect : The man cried out in sorrow that he was undone.
Direct : He said, "Hurrah! We have won the game".
Indirect : He exclaimed in joy that they had won the game.
Direct : He said to me, "What a funny boy you are"! .
Indirect : He exclaimed in joy that I was a very funny boy.
Direct : He said, "What a fool I am“!
Indirect : He cried out with sorrow that he was a great fool.
[Note: 'great' is used before a noun]
Direct : He said, "What a long journey"!
Indirect : He exclaimed that it was a very long journey.
Exception ---
Direct : He said, "Who knew that it would happen"!
Indirect : He said that nobody knew that it would happen
Direct : He said, "By God! I have never done it".
Indirect : He swore by God that he had never done it.
Direct : He said, "Had I the wings of a bird!"

Narration Test,

Narration Test
a)"Don't mix with bad boys," my father said to me. "You 
should read attentively as your examination is knocking at 
the door," he said. "No, I don't keep any bad company. I 
have just asked him if he knows the date of the 
examination," I replied.

 Ans:
My father forbade me to mix with bad boys and also added that I should read attentively as my examination was knocking at the door. I replied in the negative and said that I didn't keep any bad company and also added that I had just asked him if he knew the date of the examination.

b) “Zaman, can you tell me what I am teaching?” the teacher 
asked.” I am sorry. I can’t follow;” replied Zaman. You 
can’t because you are not attentive.” the teacher said.

Ans:
The teacher asked Zaman if he could tell him what he was teaching. Zaman expressed his regret and added that he couldn’t follow. The teacher told him that he couldn’t because he was not attentive.

C)
“What’s a puppet show ? Sabu asked his father. Father 
said, “Let’s go inside and you can see for ourselves”. Inside 
the tent Sabu said. “How strange! A doll is dancing and 
talking,” Father said. “ A man behind the screen is moving 
the doll. Do you understand who is talking?”
Ans:
Sabu asked his father what a puppet show was. Father proposed that they should go inside so that he (Sabu) could see for himself. Inside the tent Sabu exclaimed with wonder that it was very strange that a doll was dancing and talking. Father told him that a man behind the screen was moving the doll. He also asked if he understood who was talkin g.

d) My father looked at me with anger and said to me, 
“Where have you been so long and why are you wasting 
your time ?” After a moment he said, “Will you not 
appear in the final examination?” I said, “I went to my 
friends’ house to borrow an essential book. But he was  not at home. So I had to wait for him.”
Ans:
My father looked at me with anger and asked me where I had been so long and why I was wasting my time. After a moment he asked again if I would not appear in the final examination. I told him that I had gone to my friends' house to borrow an essential book. I also added that he (my friend) had not been at home and I had to wait for him for this reason.

e) “Why are you putting up the food in your pocket, sir? 
Why don’t you eat?” said the nobleman. “I am doing the 
right thing. My dress deserves these rich dishes,” replied 
Sheikh Saadi. “I don’t understand what you mean to say”, 
said the noble man. “And I am sorry.”
Ans:
The nobleman asked Sheikh Saadi why he (S) was putting up the food in his pocket and why he didn't eat. In reply, Sheikh Saadi told him that he was doing the right thing and added that his dress deserved those rich dishes. Then the nobleman said that he didn't understand what he (S) had meant to say and added that he was sorry.

f) Teacher  :  What’s your name ? 
Student  :  Max, Sir. 
Teacher  :  Can you read and write ? 
Student  :  Sure, Sir.

Ans:
Teacher asks the student what his name is. Addressing the teacher as sir, the student replies that his name is Max. Teacher further asks the students if he can read and write. The students confidently answers that he is sure about it.
g) .The general, addressing his mutinous troops said, “You have brought disgrace 

upon a famous regiment. If you had grievances, why did you not lay them before your 

own officers? Now you must first suffer punishment for your offence, before your complaints can be heard.”
Ans
The general told his mutinous troops that they had brought disgrace upon a famous regiment. If they had grievances, why had they not laid them before their own officers? Now they must suffer punishment for their offence before their complaints could be heard.

h) .“Curse it!” exclaimed the driver. “Who could have foreseen such ill-luck? But for accident we should have caught the train easily.” 

Ans:
The driver exclaimed with an oath that nobody could have foreseen such ill- luck. But for the accident they would have caught the train easily.
i) 5. "Have you ever been to Cox's Bazar?" asked Mobarak. "No, I have never gone there," replied Linkon. "But I long for visiting the place." "I had an opportunity to visit the sea beach last year," said Mobarak. "How charming the scenery is!"

Ans:
Mobarak asked Linkon if he (L) had ever been to Cox's Bazar. Linkon replied in the negative and said that he (L) had never gone there. But he (L) added that he longed for visiting the place. Then Mobarak said that he had had an opportunity to visit the sea-beach the previous year. Mobarak also exclaimed with surprise that the scenery was very charming.

j)  "Will you buy my hair?" asked Della. "I buy hair," said Madam. "Take your hat off and let us have a sight at the looks of it" "Twenty dollars," said Madam. "Give it to me quick," said Della.

Ans:
Della asked Madam if she would buy her hair. Madam replied that she bought hair. Then Madam told her to take her hat off and suggested that they should have a sight at the looks of it. Madam proposed/ whished to give twenty dollars. Della requested her (Madam) to give it to her quickly.

k) . "Jim darling," cried Della. "Don't look at me this way. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I could not have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. I just had to do it, say Merry Christmas, Jim and let's be happy."

Ans:


Addressing Jim as darling Della cried and forbade him to look at her that way. Then she said that she had her hair cut off and sold that because she could not have lived through Christmas without giving him a present. She also said that she just had to do that and told Jim to say Merry Christmas and proposed that they should be happy.

Sentence Narration Changing Rules

10 rules of Passage Narration

Narration Changing Theory Part-01

Narration Changing Theory Part-02

Narration Test,